Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation (ACCHO)
Community control is a process that allows the local Aboriginal community to be involved in its affairs in accordance with whatever protocols or procedures are determined by the community.
Aboriginal community control has its origins in Aboriginal peoples’ right to self-determination. This includes the right to be involved in health service delivery and decision making according to protocols or procedures determined by Aboriginal communities based on the Aboriginal holistic definition of health.
An ACCHO is:
- an incorporated Aboriginal organisation
- initiated by a local Aboriginal community
- based in a local Aboriginal community
- governed by an Aboriginal body which is elected by the local Aboriginal community
- delivering a holistic and culturally appropriate health service to the community that controls it.
Acute rheumatic fever (ARF)
ARF is a disease caused by an auto-immune reaction to a bacterial infection with Group A streptococcus. ARF is a short illness, but can result in permanent damage to the heart — rheumatic heart disease (RHD). A person who has had ARF once is susceptible to repeated episodes, which can increase the risk of RHD. Following an initial diagnosis of RHD, patients require long-term treatment, including long-term antibiotic treatment to avoid infections that may damage the heart (Steer, 2009).
The formal process, using registration procedures, under which a person is accepted by a hospital or an area or district health service facility as an inpatient.
Rate for a specified age group. Both numerator and denominator refer to the same age group.
Rate adjusted to take account of differences in age composition when rates for different populations are compared. The direct method of standardisation is used for the HPF. To calculate age-standardised rates using the direct method:
- ASR is the age-standardised rate for the population being studied
- ri is the age-group specific rate for age group i in the population being studied
- Pi is the population for age group i in the standard population.
Also called age-adjusted rate.
The presence of the protein albumin in the urine, typically as a symptom of kidney disease.
Angioplasty is procedure to widen narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins, typically to treat arterial atherosclerosis. An empty, collapsed balloon is passed over a wire into the narrowed arteries or veins and then inflated to a fixed size. The balloon forces expansion of the vessel and the surrounding muscular wall, opening up the blood vessel for improved flow, and the balloon is then deflated and withdrawn. A stent may or may not be inserted at the time of ballooning to ensure the vessel remains open.
Includes recording medical history, assessment of individual needs, advice and guidance on pregnancy and delivery, screening tests, education on self-care during pregnancy, identification of conditions detrimental to health during pregnancy, first-line management and referral if necessary.
An antepartum haemorrhage (APH) is bleeding from the vagina after 20 weeks of pregnancy and before the birth of the baby. The common causes of bleeding include: cervical ectropion (when the cells on the surface of the cervix change in pregnancy, the tissue is more likely to bleed), vaginal infection, placental edge bleed (when the lower-half of the uterus begins to stretch and grow, the edge of the placenta can separate from the wall of the uterus), placenta praevia (when the placenta covers all or part of the cervix) or placental abruption (when the placenta detaches from the uterus). The latter two conditions can lead to death of the foetus and/or mother.
At-risk communities (regarding trachoma)
The National Trachoma Surveillance and Reporting Unit analysed jurisdictional trachoma screening and management data for 2014 in 125 communities in the NT, SA, WA and NSW at risk of endemic trachoma.
Australian Statistical Geography Standard — Remoteness Area (ASGS–RA)
The Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) is the Australian Bureau of Statistics geographical framework effective from July 2011. The ASGS replaces the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC). It classifies data from Statistical Areas Level 1 (SA1s) into broad geographical categories, called Remoteness Areas (RAs). The RA categories are defined in terms of ‘remoteness’ — the physical distance of a location from the nearest Urban Centre (based on population size). Remoteness is calculated using the road distance to the nearest Urban Centre (access to goods and services) for five categories:
- RA1 — Major Cities of Australia
- RA2 — Inner Regional Australia
- RA3 — Outer Regional Australia
- RA4 — Remote Australia
- RA5 — Very Remote Australia.
Australian 2001 standard population
The 2001 Australian population has been used as the standard population for calculation of directly age-standardised rates. This is the estimated resident population based on the 2001 Census.
Refers to deaths from certain conditions that are considered avoidable given timely and effective health care. Avoidable mortality measures premature deaths (for those aged 0–74 years) for specific conditions defined internationally and nationally as potentially avoidable given access to effective health care.
Body Mass Index (BMI)
Used to assess overweight and obesity levels. BMI is calculated as follows: BMI = weight (kg) / height (m)²:
- Underweight: BMI below 18.5
- Normal weight: BMI from 18.5 to 24.9
- Overweight: BMI from 25.0 to 29.9
- Obese: BMI of 30.0 and over.
The BMI cut-off points are derived from mainly European populations and can vary for other groups, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.
Cataract is a degenerative condition in which the lens of the eye clouds over, obstructing the passage of light and affecting vision. The most common type of cataract is associated with ageing. Other causes of cataract include:
- alcohol consumption
- sunlight exposure
- facial trauma
- some blood pressure lowering medications.
Disease of the blood vessels, especially the arteries that supply the brain. It is usually caused by hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) and can lead to a stroke.
A sexually transmissible infection (STI) that can affect women and men. Chlamydia is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. If left untreated, chlamydia can cause pelvic inflammatory disease in women, which can lead to chronic pain and infertility.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
COPD is a serious long-term lung disease that mainly affects older people and is often difficult to distinguish from asthma. It is characterised by chronic obstruction of lung airflow that interferes with normal breathing and is not fully reversible. COPD includes bronchitis or emphysema.
Any disease of the circulatory system, namely the heart (cardio) or blood vessels (vascular). Includes heart attack, angina, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Also known as cardiovascular disease.
Closing the Gap
A commitment made by Australian governments to improve the lives of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians.
The Council of Australian Governments (COAG) has set seven targets on closing the gap between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and non-Indigenous Australians:
- closing the life expectancy gap within a generation (2006 to 2031)
- halving the gap in mortality rates for Indigenous children under five within a decade (2008 to 2018)
- 95 per cent of all Indigenous four year olds enrolled in preschool by 2025.
- close the gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous school attendance within five years (2014 to 2018)
- halving the gap for Indigenous students in reading, writing and numeracy within a decade (2008 to 2018)
- halving the gap for Indigenous Australians aged 20-24 in Year 12 attainment or equivalent attainment rates (by 2020)
- halving the gap in employment outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians within a decade (2008 to 2018).
Physical or anatomical abnormalities present in a baby at birth. Examples include heart defects, spina bifida, limb defects, cleft lip and palate, and Down syndrome. Congenital malformations can be genetic or caused by environmental factors (such as alcohol), or be of unknown origin.
Coronary heart disease
Coronary heart disease, also known as ischaemic heart disease, is the most common form of heart disease. There are two major clinical forms — heart attack (often known as acute myocardial infarction) and angina.
An estimate of the proportion of a population that experiences an outcome during a specified period. It is calculated by dividing the number of people with an outcome in a specified period by the defined population during that period.
Crude death rate
An estimate of the proportion of a population that dies in a specified period. It is calculated by dividing the number of deaths in a specified period by the defined population during that period.
Hearing impairment, deafness or hearing loss refers to the inability to hear things, either totally or partially. Symptoms can range from mild to profound and it is caused by many different events including injury, disease and genetic defects. In this report, it comprises complete deafness, partial deafness and hearing loss not elsewhere classified.
Decayed, missing, or filled teeth scores
Oral health outcomes are usually measured in terms of the number of decayed, missing or filled baby or deciduous (dmft) and adult or permanent (DMFT) teeth. The dmft score measures decay experience in deciduous teeth, and the DMFT score measures decay experience in permanent teeth.
A chronic condition marked by high levels of glucose in the blood. This condition is caused by the inability to produce insulin (a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood glucose levels), or the insulin produced becomes less effective, or both. The three main types of diabetes are: Type 1, Type 2 and gestational diabetes.
- Type 1 diabetes, an auto-immune condition, is marked by the inability to produce any insulin and those affected need insulin replacement for survival. Type 1 diabetes is rare among Indigenous Australians.
- Type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent) is the most common form of diabetes. Those with Type 2 diabetes produce insulin but may not produce enough or cannot use it effectively. There is a high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes among Indigenous Australians, who tend to develop it earlier than other Australians and die from the disease at younger ages.
- Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy and usually disappears after birth.
Diabetic retinopathy occurs when the tiny blood vessels inside the retina at the back of the eye are damaged as a result of diabetes. This can seriously affect vision and in some cases may even cause blindness.
A medical procedure for the filtering and removal of waste products from the bloodstream. Dialysis is used to remove urea, uric acid and creatinine (a chemical waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism) in cases of chronic end-stage renal disease. Two main types are:
- haemodialysis — blood flows out of the body into a machine that filters out the waste products and returns the cleansed blood back into the body.
- peritoneal dialysis — fluid is injected into the peritoneal cavity and wastes are filtered through the peritoneum, the thin membrane that surrounds the abdominal organs.
Ear or hearing problems
Diseases of the ear and mastoid including deafness, otitis media, other diseases of the middle ear and mastoid, Meniere’s disease, other diseases of the inner ear and other diseases of the ear.
Ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy that develops outside the uterus, usually in one of the fallopian tubes. In almost all cases, the embryo dies as the developing placenta can’t access a rich blood supply and the fallopian tube is not large enough to support the growing embryo. Implantation can also occur in the cervix, ovaries, and abdomen, but this is rare.
The term ‘employed’ includes people who have worked for at least 1 hour in the reference week.
End-stage renal disease
Chronic irreversible renal failure. The most severe form of chronic kidney disease where kidney function deteriorates so much that dialysis or kidney transplantation is required to survive.
Equivalised gross household income
In measuring and comparing income, equivalised gross household income adjusts for various factors, such as the number of people living in a household, particularly children and other dependants.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
Conditions that may result from fetal exposure to alcohol during pregnancy. Disorders include fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder and alcohol-related birth defects. These disorders include antenatal and postnatal growth retardation, specific facial dysmorphology and functional abnormalities of the central nervous system.
Glaucoma is a common form of eye disease that often runs in families. It affects the optic nerve connecting the eye to the brain. Glaucoma is usually caused by high intraocular pressure as a result of a blockage in the eye’s drainage system, which can lead to irreversible vision loss and blindness. Early detection and treatment can prevent vision loss in most cases.
Gonorrhoea is a common sexually transmissible infection that affects men and women. Gonorrhoea is caused by bacteria known as Neisseria gonorrhoea. It usually affects the genital area, although the throat or anus may also be affected. It can cause pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility in women. Gonorrhoea can be treated with antibiotics.
A process used to treat kidney failure. A machine is connected to the patient’s bloodstream and then filters the blood externally to the body, removing water, excess substances and waste from the blood as well as regulating the levels of circulating chemicals. In doing this the machine takes on the role normally played by the kidneys (see also dialysis).
High blood triglycerides
Triglycerides make up about 95 per cent of all dietary fats. In many cases, regular overeating leading to obesity causes a person to have raised triglycerides, which are linked with an increased risk of health conditions including diabetes and heart disease. High triglyceride levels in the blood are also known as hypertriglyceridemia.
Hospital separation or hospitalisation
High blood pressure, defined as a repeatedly elevated blood pressure exceeding 140 over 90 mmHg — a systolic pressure above 140 with a diastolic pressure above 90.
Illicit drugs include illegal drugs (amphetamine, cocaine, marijuana, heroin, hallucinogens), pharmaceuticals when used for non-medical purposes (pain-killers, sleeping pills) and other substances used inappropriately (inhalants such as petrol or glue).
The rate at which new events or cases occur during a certain period of time.
Indigenous deaths identification rate
Almost all deaths in Australia are registered. However, the Indigenous status of the deceased may not be recorded correctly or reported. This means that the identification of Indigenous Australians in deaths data is incomplete. The number of deaths registered as Indigenous may therefore be an underestimate of deaths occurring among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population (ABS, 1997). As a result, the observed differences between Indigenous and non-Indigenous mortality are underestimates of the true differences.
The death of a child before one year.
Invasive pneumococcal disease
A more serious form of pneumococcal disease, an infection caused by the Streptococcus pneumoniae bacterium. It occurs inside a major organ or in the blood and can result in pneumonia, sepsis, middle-ear infection (otitis media), or bacterial meningitis.
Ischaemic heart disease
Ischaemic heart disease, or myocardial ischaemia, is a disease characterised by reduced blood supply (ischaemia) of the heart muscle, usually due to coronary artery disease. See also coronary heart disease.
Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K5)
A measure of psychological distress in people aged 16 years and over. K5 is a 5-item questionnaire that measures the level of psychological distress in the most recent 4-week period. At both the population and individual level, the K5 measure is a brief and accurate screening scale for psychological distress.
The labour force comprises all people who are either employed or unemployed.
The average number of years of life remaining to a person at a particular age. Life expectancy at birth is an estimate of the average length of time (in years) a person can expect to live, assuming that the currently prevailing rates of death for each age group will remain the same for the lifetime of that person.
The birth of a child who after delivery, breathes or shows any other evidence of life, such as a heartbeat. For calculation of perinatal death rates only infants weighing at least 400 grams at birth or, where birthweight is unknown, of at least 20 weeks gestation is included.
Low birthweight babies
Infants born weighing less than 2,500gm.
The mastoid process — a bony protrusion located behind the ear in the lower part of the skulls — contains mastoid cells (small air-filled cavities) that communicate with the middle ear. Infection of the mastoid process can lead to hearing loss and other complications.
Meningococcal disease describes infections caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (meningococci bacteria). These bacteria can cause meningitis (an inflammatory response to an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord) and sepsis (an infection in the bloodstream). Meningitis can lead to deafness, epilepsy, cognitive defects and death. Sepsis can lead to organ dysfunction or failure and death.
A set of statistical techniques used to analyse data with more than one variable.
Myocardial infarction or acute myocardial infarction are terms commonly used to refer to a heart attack, but more correctly refer only to those heart attacks that have caused some death of heart muscle.
Myopia or near-sightedness is a type of refractive error of the eye, in which the eye does not focus light correctly. This makes distant objects appear blurred.
Incision in eardrum to relieve pressure caused by excessive build-up of fluid.
National Indigenous Reform Agreement (NIRA)
The NIRA is an agreement between the Commonwealth and state and territory Governments that provides the framework for Closing the Gap in Indigenous disadvantage. It sets out the objectives, outcomes, outputs, performance indicators and performance benchmarks agreed by COAG.
Death within 28 days of birth of any child who, after delivery, breathed or showed any other evidence of life, such as a heartbeat.
An abnormal growth of tissue. Can be ‘benign’ (not a cancer) or ‘malignant’ (a cancer). Same as a tumour.
Nephritis is an inflammation of the kidneys. It is often caused by toxins, infections, and auto-immune diseases.
Nephrosis is a condition of the kidneys. It is usually caused by diseases that damage the kidneys' filtering system, allowing a protein called albumin to be filtered out into the urine (albuminuria). Symptoms include protein in the urine, high triglyceride levels, high cholesterol levels, low blood protein levels, and swelling.
Care provided to a patient, whose condition requires admission to hospital or other inpatient facility.
In this report, notifications are cases of communicable diseases reported by general practitioners, hospitals and pathology laboratories to the relevant authorities.
Middle ear infection. In severe or untreated cases, otitis media can lead to hearing loss.
Overweight and obesity
Overweight and obesity are measured using height and weight to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). BMI scores in the range 25.00 to 29.99 are classified as ‘overweight’ and scores 30.00 or more as ‘obese’.
Post-Enumeration Survey (PES)
The PES is a short survey run in the month after each Census, to determine how many people were missed or counted more than once. It collects information about where people were on Census night and their characteristics. The PES provides information on the population and dwelling characteristics of the net undercount in the Census of Population and Housing.
Potentially avoidable hospital admissions
Preterm labour is defined as birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation.
The rate at which existing events or cases are found at a given point or in a period of time.
Primary health care
Primary health care usually is the first point of contact a person encounters with the health care system. In mainstream health throughout Australia primary health care is normally provided by general practitioners, community health nurses, pharmacists, environmental health officers etc., although the term usually means medical care. Primary health care may be provided through an ACCHO or satellite clinic (AH&MRC, 1999).
Primary Health Networks (PHN)
Primary Health Networks (PHNs) have been established with the key objectives of increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of medical services for patients, particularly those at risk of poor health outcomes, and improving coordination of care to ensure patients receive the right care in the right place at the right time.
A refractive error, or refraction error, is an error in the focusing of light by the eye and a frequent reason for blurred vision. It may lead to visual impairment.
Respiratory disease includes conditions affecting the respiratory system—which includes the lungs and airways—such as asthma, COPD and pneumonia (see also Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease).
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD)
RHD may develop after illness with rheumatic fever, usually during childhood. Rheumatic fever can cause damage to various structures of the heart including the valves, lining or muscle and this damage is known as RHD (see also acute rheumatic fever).
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease. In rheumatoid arthritis, the immune system attacks the body’s own tissues, specifically the synovium, a thin membrane that lines the joints. As a result of the attack, fluid builds up in the joints causing painin the joints and inflammationthroughout the body.
Globally, rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in early childhood. Almost all children in Australia have been infected by the time they reach five years of age.
Secondary health care
Secondary health care refers to particular services provided by hospitals, such as acute care, as well as services provided by specialists.
Selected potentially avoidable hospital admissions
Selected potentially preventable hospital admissions refers to admissions to hospital that are considered sensitive to the effectiveness, timeliness and adequacy of non-hospital care. This includes conditions for which hospitalisation could potentially be avoided through effective preventive measures or early diagnosis and treatment (Page, 2007).
The formal process whereby an in-patient leaves a hospital or other health care facility after completing an episode of care. For example, a discharge to home, discharge to another hospital, nursing home, other care facility, or death. The hospital separation rate is the average number of hospital separations per 1,000 population.
An indication from a statistical test that an observed difference or association may be significant or ‘real’ because it is unlikely to be due just to chance.
Substantiated child protection notifications
A child protection notification is substantiated where it is concluded that the child has been, is being, or is likely to be, abused, neglected or otherwise harmed.
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
The sudden and unexpected death of a baby with no known illness, typically affecting sleeping infants between the ages of 2 weeks to 6 months.
Syphilis is a sexually transmissible infection caused by a bacterium called Treponema pallidum. It can affect both men and women. Syphilis is transmitted through close skin-to-skin contact and is highly contagious when the syphilis sore (chancre) or rash is present. If untreated, syphilis can damage the internal organs, such as heart and brain and can result in death.
Tertiary health care
Tertiary health care refers to highly specialised or complex services provided by specialists or allied health professionals in a hospital or primary health care setting, such as cancer treatment and complex surgery.
Trachoma is an eye infection that can result in scarring, in-turned eyelashes and blindness. Australia is the only developed country where trachoma is still endemic and it is found almost exclusively in remote and very remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Trachoma is associated with living in an arid environment (including the impact of dust); lack of access to clean water for hand and face washing; and overcrowding and low socio-economic status (Taylor, 2008).
Trichiasis involves the misdirection of eyelashes toward the eyeball, causing irritation and, if untreated, corneal scarring and vision loss. The misdirected lashes may be diffuse across the entire lid or in a small segmental distribution.
A surgical intervention to reconstruct a perforated eardrum.
The term ‘unemployed’ refers to people who are without work, but have actively looked for work in the last four weeks and are available to start work.
The number of unemployed people expressed as a proportion of the labour force (i.e., employed and unemployed).
Vocational Education and Training (VET) load pass rate
The VET load pass rate is a ratio of hours of supervision in assessable modules or units that students have completed to the hours of supervision in assessable modules or units that students have either completed, failed or withdrawn from.